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The Japanese term "jukan" means "heavy feeling" or "massive" in terms of the apex of a bonsai. It is one of the three types of apexes, along with "chukan" (medium feeling) and "keikan" (light feeling). The jukan or formal upright style has an apex that is directly over the center of the trunk's entry into the soil. The branches are symmetrical and evenly spaced, and the apex is broad and dome-shaped. This style is suitable for coniferous trees that have a straight and vertical trunk, such as pines and spruces. It is characterized by a thick and dense foliage mass that gives the impression of weight and stability. The jukan apex is often used for coniferous trees, such as pines and junipers, that have a strong trunk and branches.

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