Pruning a bonsai is the process of removing unwanted branches and leaves to shape the tree and promote its health. Pruning can be done in different ways depending on the type and stage of the bonsai. Some common pruning techniques are pinching, plucking, trimming, defoliation, and wiring. Pinching is used to stimulate new growth and create denser foliage. Plucking is used to expose the branches for wiring and styling. Trimming is used to cut off excess or unwanted growth and maintain the desired size. Defoliation is used to reduce the leaf size and increase light penetration. Wiring is used to bend and position the branches in a desired direction. Pruning a bonsai requires skill, patience, and creativity. It is one of the most important aspects of bonsai art.