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Phosphorus is one of the 17 essential nutrients that plants need for growth and reproduction. It is involved in many biological processes, such as photosynthesis, energy transfer, cell division, cell enlargement, and genetic information. Phosphorus is also important for root development, seed formation, disease resistance, and stress tolerance in plants. Plants absorb phosphorus from the soil water as inorganic phosphate ions. However, phosphorus availability in the soil is often low due to various factors, such as soil pH, clay minerals, organic matter, and root activity. Therefore, phosphorus fertilizers are often applied to the soil to enhance plant growth and productivity. Phosphorus deficiency in plants can cause poor growth, delayed flowering, reduced yield, and purple or reddish coloration of leaves. Phosphorus excess can also be harmful to plants and the environment, as it can cause nutrient imbalance, water pollution, and algal blooms.

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