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Plant germination is the process of a seed sprouting and developing into a new plant. It involves the reactivation of the metabolic activities of the seed, which were suspended during dormancy. The seed absorbs water and oxygen from the environment, and breaks through the seed coat. The first structures to emerge from the seed are the radicle (the embryonic root) and the plumule (the embryonic shoot). The radicle anchors the plant in the soil, while the plumule grows upwards and produces leaves. The germination process depends on various internal and external factors, such as temperature, light, moisture, and seed quality. Some seeds may require a period of afterripening or exposure to certain stimuli to overcome dormancy and germinate.

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